Maritime transport is the main modality for Europe’s import and export activities, contributing largely to the EU’s prime position in global trade.
According to 2020 IMO data, by 2050 global GHG emissions from shipping may increase by up to 50% as compared to 2018, in case nothing changes. In addition, EU has even more ambitious goal of cutting all transport emissions by 90% by 2050, as stipulated in the Green Deal. Internal combustion engines (ICE) running on ammonia can be an important enabler in reaching the 2050 goals.
Ammonia2-4 ICEs could constitute as much as 30-80% of the total energy use by shipping in 2050. However, in order to make a real-world impact, these solutions need to be developed now and enter the market in the next 7-10 years. This is precisely what the Ammonia2-4 project is aiming at.

The overall aim of the Ammonia2-4 project is to demonstrate at full scale two types of dual fuel marine engines running on ammonia as main fuel:

  • a 4-stroke engine demonstrated in lab conditions closely mimicking real-life operations in ambient conditions
  • a 2-stroke retrofit fuel injection platform the working principle will be validated under lab conditions and technology demonstrated on existing marine engine.

The expected end result is the commercial exploitation within the next ten years of the demonstrated solutions towards more than 90% of the maritime intercontinental transport in terms of gross tonnage, including retrofits and newbuilds, together with an annual reduction of CO2 emitted by deep sea vessels calling at EU ports by 2.3 million tons and reduce the emissions of harmful pollutants such as SOx by 15 tons annually.

A number of non-technical aspects crucial for a successful uptake of ammonia as marine fuel will be investigated:

  • Health & Safety
  • Ammonia Supply Infrastructure
  • Crew Training & Acceptance
  • Novel Standardisation Pathways for regulating emissions from ammonia marine engines.

The consortium work towards closing the current technological, commercial and regulatory gap between insights on the feasibility of burning ammonia in small engines and the actual proof that a large oceangoing vessel can be powered by ammonia as the main fuel in a safe, operationally efficient and economical way.